Ricardo plc provides engineering, technical, environmental, and strategic consultancy services for transportation original equipment manufacturers and operators, suppliers, energy companies, and government agencies. It operates through Energy & Environment (EE), Rail, Automotive and Industrial (A&I), Defense, Performance Products (PP, and Other segments. The EE segment provides industry-leading analysis, advice, and data to governments, public agencies, and businesses. The Rail segment offers technical advice and engineering services, and accredited assurance services. The A&I segment engages in the provision of clean, efficient, integrated propulsion, and energy solutions in area of hybrid and electric systems, electrification, engines, driveline and transmissions, testing, and vehicle engineering for automotive, aerospace, defense, energy, off-highway and commercial, marine, motorcycle and light-personal transport, and rail. The Defense segment focuses on the delivery of services, software, and products that protect life and reduce defense programme costs and waste, as well as offers various engineering programmes; and anti-lock braking system/electronic stability control systems. The PP segment manufactures and assembles niche high-quality components, prototypes, and complex products, including engines, transmissions, and other precision and performance-critical products; and provides manufacturing and supply-chain services for motorsport, automotive, aerospace, defense, and rail. The Other segment offers management consultancy services for automotive, transportation, and mobility industries. It operates in the United Kingdom, Europe, North America, China, Australia, rest of Asia, and internationally. Ricardo plc was founded in 1915 and is headquartered in Shoreham-by-Sea, the United Kingdom.